Synopsis

The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study was established in 1989-1991 with the inclusion of 2900 pregnant women. There were 2868 live births and these children formed the original cohort (Generation 2) of the Raine Study. The initial focus of the Raine Study was around the developmental origins of health and disease, but the focus has since evolved towards a life-course framework approach taking into account interacting domains of genetics, phenotypes (cardiometabolic, respiratory, immunological, hormonal, musculoskeletal, psychological, vision and hearing, body composition and growth), behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, diet, drug use, risk taking), the environment (sunlight, chemical exposures, spatial environment) and other developmental outcomes (education, work).

The original cohort of 2868 children (Generation 2), is one of the largest, most successful prospective cohorts of pregnancy, childhood, adolescence and now adulthood to be carried out anywhere in the world. This cohort has provided environmental, developmental and health information over the past 27 years providing a unique and valuable resource covering a wide range of health areas. Follow-up assessments of the cohort have been conducted at birth, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 14, 17, 18, 20, 22 and 27 years of age by a collaborative team of researchers from many universities and organisations.

The Raine Study is now a multigenerational life-course study addressing a broad range of health and developmental issues in three generations. In addition to the original cohort (Generation 2), their parents (Generation 1) participated in assessments, providing information about their children and about themselves. Generation 1 is currently participating in assessments of sleep, obesity and activity. In addition, the offspring (Generation 3) of the original cohort (Generation 2) is currently participating in assessments of developmental ability and physical activity.

Summary

Study name The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study
Study abbreviation Raine Study
Current principal investigator/s

Prof Romola Bucks, Director; A/Prof Rebecca Glauert, Scientific Director

Current project manager Aggie Bouckley, Operations Manager
Cohort representative (study contact) Dr Manon Dontje, Scientific Officer
Postal address The Raine Study, The University of Western Australia, School of Population Health | M410 | 14-16 Parkway, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley WA 6009
Phone +61 8 6488 6952
Email

rainestudy@uwa.edu.au

Primary Institution The University of Western Australia
Collaborating Institution/s Curtin University, Telethon Kids Institute, Women and Infants Research Foundation, Edith Cowan University, Murdoch University, University of Notre Dame Australia, Raine Medical Research Foundation
Major funding sources Raine Medical Research Foundation, NHMRC, ARC
Study website rainestudy.org.au
Key reference

Straker, Mountain, Jacques, White, Smith, Landau, Stanley, Newnham, Pennell, Eastwood. Cohort profile: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study – Generation 2. Int J Epidemiol. 2017. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyw308 

Straker, Hall, Mountain, Howie, White, McArdle, Eastwood, Raine Study 22 Year Follow-Up Investigator Group. Rationale, design and methods for the 22 year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. BMC Public Health. 2015 Jul 14;15:663. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1944-6 

Are data available outside study team? Yes
Study focus The initial focus of the Raine Study was around the developmental origins of health and disease, but the focus has since evolved towards a life-course framework approach taking into account interacting domains of genetics, phenotypes (cardiometabolic, respiratory, immunological, hormonal, musculoskeletal, psychological, vision and hearing, body composition and growth), behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, diet, drug use, risk taking), the environment (sunlight, chemical exposures, spatial environment) and other developmental outcomes (education, work).
Sampling frame Live born children of women 18 weeks pregnant in Perth, Western Australia
Year commenced 1989
Commencement sample Generation 2: 2868 
Intergenerational? Currently 3 generations are included: Generation 1: parents Generation 2: original cohort (kids) Generation 3: off-spring of original cohort
Imaging Yes, DEXA, MRI, prenatal fetal ultrasound, liver ultrasound, testicular ultrasound, 3-dimensional facial photographs, eye imaging (including visual acuity, orthoptic assessment and cycloplegic autorefraction, as well as several ocular biometric variables and multiple ophthalmic photographs of the anterior and posterior segments, conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence)
Linkage Yes, WA Data Linkage Unit
Biosamples? Yes, blood, DNA, urine, milk teeth
Ethics approvals or requirements? Ethical approval.

Waves

Wave Year Age (mean, range) Eligible sample
1  Children born between 1989 – 1991 18 weeks gestational, birth Livebirths 2868
2  1991–1993 1 year Eligible 2819; Participated 2446
3  1991-1994 2 year Eligible 2787; Participated 1988
4  1993-1995 3 years Eligible 2757; Participated 2280
5  1995-1998 5 year Eligible 2711; Participated 2236
6  1998-2000 8 year Eligible 2490; Participated 2140
7  2000-2003 10 year Eligible 2490; Participated 2048
8  2003-2006 14 year Eligible 2424; Participated 1864
9 2006-2009 17 year Eligible 2532; Participated 1726
10 2010-2012 20 year Eligible 2313; Participated 1462
11 2012-2014 22 year Eligible 2262; Participated 1462
12 2016-2016 26 year (sub-study) Eligible 1377; Participated 474
13 2016-2018 27 year (in progress) Eligible 2013; Participated (in progress)